Dark spots on the skin, or hyperpigmentation, occur when some areas of the skin produce more melanin than normal. Melanin is the main determinant of skin color. It is also found in the hair and the iris of the eye.
Regarding the causes of these spots on our skin, they can be due to several reasons:
One of the most common causes is from sun exposure. These are called sunspots and they tend to appear on our skin after spending a lot of time exposed to the sun or in sunbeds.
Another common cause is due to hormonal changes. Sometimes menopause, pregnancy, or the menstrual cycle can cause spots to appear.
Similarly, in some cases, women during pregnancy can suffer from chloasma, also known as melasma or “mask of pregnancy”, which are dark, brown or gray spots that appear on the face especially during pregnancy.
Sometimes medications have side effects that can cause blemishes on the skin. This means that certain medications can increase skin pigmentation and cause dark spots.
In the same way, people who suffer from psoriasis, eczema or acne can develop spots due to the inflammation that these diseases generate on the skin.
Also, some cosmetics can irritate our skin, causing dark spots.
And lastly, diabetes can cause areas of the skin to become darker.