Atopic dermatitis (AD), known as atopic eczema, is a chronic inflammatory dermatological disease of the skin that evolves through eruptions, where there is a genetic predisposition, which predominantly affects the child population, and where the main symptom is the itching.
It is part of the allergic diseases group, also composed of allergic rhinitis, extrinsic asthma, allergic conjunctivitis and some types of food allergy.
AD or childhood eczema is a frequent and worldwide distribution disorder, it is estimated that 10 to 15% of children worldwide are affected by AD. 15% of the Spanish population suffers from severe AD (data collected for Nov 2017). Of these, 60% develops before the first year of life, 87% before 5 years and only 10% after 7 years of life. 70% of cases disappear in adolescence. It affects the male gender as female equally.
The skin dryness is mainly responsible for the itching, redness, swelling or inflammation, pigmentation alterations, erosions and thickening.
Eczema can appear anywhere or only in some parts on the body:
babies, the outbreaks tend to occur on the face and on the scalp.
- In younger children the eruptions often appear in the folds of the elbows and knees.
- In teenagers and young adults, outbreaks usually appear on the hands and feet.
Regarding the prevention of this disease, we must considerate this tips:
- The clothing to be used should be exclusively cotton since it is the softest and lightest.
- It is essential to avoid humidity and heat as they increase the itching.
- Since sun is a great anti-inflammatory, it helps to improve skin lesions.
- Exercising stimulates the improvement of the disease.
- It is important to moisturize daily our skin, as well as drink plenty of water.
Being atopic dermatitis a chronic problem of the skin, can appear and disappear. It`s required a constant control of the child’s skin.